15 Fighters: Water

Purifying it.

Storing it.

Carrying it.

Cleaning that gear.

Have at it.

Links appreciated.

103 responses to “15 Fighters: Water

  1. MAKING CHLORINE BLEACH for water purification
    To make a chlorine bleach solution using calcium hypochlorite, here are some formulas I got from the Army Technical Bulletin entitled, “SANITARY CONTROL AND SURVEILLANCE OF FIELD WATER SUPPLIES” (TB MED 577).
    From the Army manual, to make a concentrated chlorine solution that you can use for disinfecting water (or to be used in maintaining a clean and sanitary living environment), you’ll want to use calcium hypochlorite that has around 70% available chlorine.
    If you’re buying pool shock, on the back of the bag it will tell you what percentage of chlorine is available. The one I use is called “Zappit 73 Pool Shock, it is pure calcium hyphochlorite that contains up to 73% available chlorine and sells for around $5 for a 1lb bag.
    To make the homemade chlorine bleach solution, you’ll need to do the following:
    Mix 2 level Tablespoons of Calcium Hypochlorite to 3 cups of water.
    After you’ve made your stock of chlorine solution, you’ll want to follow the formula from the Army Technical Bulletin in determining how much of the above stock chlorine solution you’ll need for your desired number of gallons of water to be disinfected. *Note: I’ve updated the formula to calculate the same concentration that household bleach has. If you have questions, fire me an email and I’ll be more than happy to explain the math.
    mL of stock chlorine required = (desired concentration (mg/L)*number of gallons to be treated)/18.12
    The desired concentration refers to how much chlorine in mg/L you want the disinfected water to have. A recommended amount is 7 mg/L of concentration. This equates to adding 8 drops of household liquid bleach to 1 gallon of water (the recommended amount when disinfecting water with household bleach).
    Given these amounts, if you wanted to disinfect 1 gallon of water with the homemade chlorine solution, the formula would be as follows:
    This equates to .38mL or 8 drops of the concentrated solution per gallon of water. Just like normal household bleach!
    So the 3 step process is as follows:
    Place 8 drops of homemade chlorine bleach in 1 gallon of water
    Let stand for 30 min
    If water is still cloudy, repeat steps until clear; otherwise it is ready to drink
    Keep in mind, that once the homemade chlorine bleach is made it will follow the same shelf-life limitations as standard household liquid bleach. So be sure to only make amounts you will be using within that time frame.

    • Mephistophelis

      Great advice. From this water/waste water treatment operator, I have a piece of advice. Beware that even though calcium hypochlorite, “powdered bleach”, is a solid, unless it is in a gasketed, air-tight container, it will off-gas. Anything susceptible to oxydation in the presence of that gas, which is 2.5x heavier than air, will become rusty almost overnight.

  2. I copied my previous post from somewhere on the web years ago so do not contact for an explanation of the calculations

  3. lastmanstanding

    Berkey Sport Water Bottles @ http://www.directive21.com You can purify up to 27 gallons of questionable water. Can get replaceable parts. Replaceable filters are $20

    Unfortunately, they are now $34…They used to be under $20. Still if you need a filter/vessel 22 oz. that is small/packable, you really can’t beat it

    I’ve had a small Pur pump filter for over 20 years. Changeable filter as well.

    Unfortunately, many of you in no way can drink directly from waterways in your neighborhood.. I can’t tell you how many times I have drank water right out of a mountain stream or seep. Still have to give it some thought but those of us in the Rockies have it way better than most.

    • Glad that you mentioned the Berkey.

      I definitely recommend the table top Berkey, especially the version that’s clear so you can check the current volumes of water that’s filtered and in the top chamber.

      Pay attention to when the black filters need to be replaced (definitely have spates/replacements).

      Yes a Kaytadyn is the gold standard – if you can get/affird one, but the Berkey is an excellent choice.

      NorthGunner – The Truth Is It’s OWN Defense!

  4. lastmanstanding

    By the way…www.directive21.com is a great site for many other items as well. The have a weekly email special deal that goes out on Monday’s. Their pricing is as good as I’ve seen on the web.

  5. Bill,
    Thanks for the above —- are there any limitations on the “lifetime” of the calcium hypochlorite (Zappit 73 Pool Shock)? Was thinking long term storage for future needs —
    Thanks again,

    • Unopened sealed packages are gtg. If opened i would transfer to a sealable opaque container. Shelf life years

  6. Sawyer Mini Filters (https://smile.amazon.com/Sawyer-Products-SP103-Filtration-System/dp/B00MPH1LEU/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1549035478&sr=8-1&keywords=sawyer+mini) are great proven products. They can be used as-is or put in line on water bladder hoses by cutting the hose and pushing the filter in place. It’s a tight enough fit no further means of securing the filter in place are necessary. For containers, go with old school GI canteens, at least one on the battle belt and multiples in the pack. If you go with a water bladder system, it should be on the back of your vest/PC/battle belt suspenders. Easy, simple, inexpensive, and proven.

  7. I whole heartedly agree with the above statement. Might leave a little back taste in the mouth, but better than tasting your puke, from a tore up stomach. As for water carrying, I have suggested before, basic load out is two canteens and a metal cup. Such as listed below. Using the newer molle cover give you pouches to carry water tablets, etc. Use a rattle can “To paint Match” if you do not like ACU. And who does; but it is cheap and easily color to your hearts desire.


  8. Seraphim of Sarov

    Canteen with canteen cup (I should probably get a lid for that asap huh?) with iodine tablets in the pouch.

    Sawyer mini filter.

    SmartWater bottles (2 minimum, one is the designated dirty the other clean). The carbonated water bottles (same brand) are even more durable.

    That’s the cheap cheap cheapest way to do it.

    • Johnny Paratrooper

      Yikes. Why would you cheap out on water?

      FYI, You cant wash your face or your butt with dirty water. You have to use clean water.

  9. I broke down and bought the MSR Guardian. I love it. It pumps 2 liters a minute and is self cleaning. The bottom can screw onto a hydration bladder or water bottle. It filters down to virus level.

  10. Behemoth in E id

    You can also uv purify water in clear containers. Only fill half way, filter for turbidity first, then place in strong sunlight for 6 hours, all microorganisms dead. no supplies needed other than container and cloth for filter.

    • Fill the containers all the way, after pre-filtering the water to as clear as you can get it, and nota bene 6 hours is only good for full, direct sunlight in the tropics or near tropics.
      It also assumes whenever possible, you’re going to set it on a corrugated tin sheet, or something like it, to get the UV going at if from all sides at the same time.

      You might could get away with it in summer in AZ or TX, but not so much overcast springtime in MN or ME.

      Err on the side of caution, unless you want to play cholera and dysentery games, and die.


      SODIS also means you (or at least, your water bottles) aren’t going anywhere for all that time.

  11. Behemoth in E id

    Sodium hypochlorite offgasses continually. I keep it in it bag in large half gallon glass jars. after a year it will eat a metal lid. Also be careful opening jar , unless inhaling chlorine is your idea of a good time. I replace mine after 5 years. Another item to have are stearamine tablets for cleaning, sanitizing, not drinking. Look up stearamine quarternary.

  12. CA,

    Progressing through their age/developmental stages, we homeschool with Latina Christiana, then Henle. I flirted with using Wheelock, but decided it is suitable for college and beyond (and it is distinctly secular). If you are asking for your children, I advise using such a progression. Henle’s series was the standard Catholic high school text for decades, so has many worthwhile supplements (e.g., grammar summary, answer keys, and workbooks, even conjugation and declension posters).

    Of course the Mass is foundational and all “trad” boys are trained as altar boys, so the Missal*** is a constant reference. I add classic supplementary readings such as Caesar’s Gallic War. I treasure the face-to-face time seeing our precious babies light up with insight, ordered thinking, and the glow of success. We have not used internet resources in our family because the internet destroys young minds and souls.

    If you are asking for yourself, I would still lean towards Henle, though Wheelock has extensive online assists. http://www.wheelockslatin.com/

    ***In our case, the 1945 edition St. Andrew’s Daily Missal from St. Bonaventure Publications: http://libers.com/sam.htm
    Why? BBBTW (Because Bugnini and Bea That’s Why).

  13. Iodine tablets are a great water purification method, however, be careful of using those with thyroid issues. Just a heads up.

  14. Basic USGI canteens are perfectly fine for carrying. I like the old East German ones to because of the smaller Canteen cup but its not big deal really.
    Whats more important is not FILTRATION but PURIFICATION.


    For a group of 15 you need two of these just so you have a spare and to increase pump time.
    This is a Purifier. That means it has a small enough pore to catch Viruses that are in the water. Most hiker type filters do not get down small enough to catch the Viruses. I have one and have used it on a couple of hikes. Its bulky and a little bit on the heavy side but you make room for it by just carrying one or two for the whole group and cross load to compensate.

    • Old Gray Wolf

      I have one of those too. An older one, claims to be rated for radioactive particles as well. Pretty short duration filter, so I keep it in my nuclear war survival omygoditsTheRoadcometolife kit. Hope I never need it. The katadyn pocket filter has served me well for over 15 years now.

      • Yeah its only going to do about 150 gallons (probably more if the water is relatively clean) but I know this shit works. Had some guys at Emory recommend it. They took in on a trip to Africa and pumped green standing water filled with lord knows what through it.
        For the average hike I got a Sawyer.
        I also have a Steri-Pen and multiple Life straws.
        Purification tablets and gallons of bleach (which have to be rotated out now and then)
        I believe in multiple layers of redundancy regarding water. I don’t carry it all at once of course but that’s part of the point.

        You cant CARRY enough water. You can carry one of these systems and drink for days.

    • SemperFi, 0321

      I have one too. Been using it backpacking/hiking for about 10 yrs now, on my 3rd filter. I run the dye test and change them out about every 3 yrs whether it needs it or not. Have no idea how many gallons per yr I use, but it gets used in clear running water here in the Winds and Yellowstone NP.
      Love it over the gravity types, I pump up several water bottles and on my way in 5 mins. I like the Gatorade 20 oz. bottles, they screw into the bottom inside thread of the filter and you don’t tip over the bottle or waste any filtered water either. I then pour into a bladder if needed and refill the 20 oz again. Carry 1 on each angled side pocket of my pack, the Ospreys allow you to pull them out and drink on the go.
      Nalgene bottles screw onto the outside thread too.

      Anyone want to backpack Yellowstone NP in July?

      • Wow. That’s an interesting idea. Can you suggest a loadout that would support what you are thinking?

        Not right tonight, but a heckuva to leverage the DSR.

        • SemperFi, 0321

          I’ll find some backpacking links, be advised it can get below freezing at night even in July. Then 2 nights later it’s almost too hot to sleep.
          What would be of interest, 3 days , 2 nights on a gentle hike? I can pull the permit, then it’s $6 per person per night.
          Nice chance to see bison, moose, wolves and grizz, and there may not be 1 animal the entire trip also. It’s a crap shoot.

          • Sounds real good. Thanks.

            • Johnny Paratrooper

              The animals move up the mountain to cool off and avoid the heat.
              They are always near the water.

          • lastmanstanding

            A permit!? To hike and camp in the park?…after you pay entry as well?

            It pissed me off to pay entry 25 years ago…we were the only Americans in the whole damn place, it was late Sept…and I haven’t been back. Lots of other places in Wyoming and Montana just a beautiful, less traveled and FREE.

            But you are ready know that…that is where you should take C A. 🙂

  15. Always great to have activated carbon granules around.
    The micro pores are fantastic, not only for scrubbing
    water, but ambient air.
    Once you get most of the heavier micron stuff out, then good
    to proceed for final scrub down, or just layering its way
    Bacterial/deceased water is a prior step though.

  16. @ oughtsix

    “Just war, Al.… What does it take to make you give your ‘blessing’ to righteous fury, moral outrage and armed self defense?…”

    If you could connect your own dots, you could answer your own question.

    Helpful Hints: A just war requires:
    (1) just authority,
    (2) a just cause, and
    (3) a rightful intention.
    As a last resort only the necessary amount of force may be used until the just cause is accomplished—no disproportionate force, “scorched earth,” perpetual war, or atrocities against non-combatants.

    Summa Theologiae: War (Secunda Secundae Partis, Question 40)

    “If we wait on the Second Coming and the Final Judgement, none of us may live to see it, watching our wives and children die… or worse. No man knows the hour or the day.”

    If you could connect your own dots, you would understand that it is not when you and I die that matters, but whether or not we die in His Grace.

    “So, with all the scorn your self righteous arrogance deserves, take your snide superiority and shove it right up in there with your head.”

    They called the Covington Catholics arrogant because they too stood their ground in the face of noisy foul-mouthed evil. [smirk]

  17. …..since 2005 I’ve been drinking spring water……my whole house runs on it….it’s piped straight in from the natural spring that flows out of the mountain up behind the house….I live in the N.C. mountains and lots of people in this area do likewise…..actually I’ve got two springs, one seep and a creek that feeds the pond…,.they are the crown jewels of my property….if you’re looking for retreat property put water at the top of your list….ideally you want a spring that’s is a bit higher than the peak of your roof line….that gives you water pressure to run the washing machine, have a good shower ect….you also want the potential to build a pond….you need it for fire suppression and stocked fish for protein and recreational use….swimming, duck hunting, ice skating ect…
    ……..one caveat…. some bankers won’t do a mortgage on a house that runs on spring water….they are city boys and don’t understand that for centuries people have plumbed natural gravity fed water into their houses….hell the Romans did knew enough to do that centuries ago….keep shopping for a banker who has a rural background and understands what you’re trying to achieve…..water self sufficiency is the most valuable part of your retreat…..even if SHTF day never comes; you will still have the satisfaction of no longer having to pay those onerous water/sewer bills like you did in the city.
    Good luck to all……44 Colt

  18. Johnny Paratrooper

    That should also include “Defending It”

    If your water source is contaminated, you will die a slow painful death.

  19. Old Gray Wolf

    I carry a kayadyn pocket filter. 13000 gallons per filter element. I have a spare element on the shelf. Also carry a sawyer as a a quick use option. Can boil easily enough when the heat signature is not an issue. Like fire, I carry backup for the backup when it comes to water. Stainless nalgenesx2 for containers. Can boil or cook in them if needed. A canteen and the Sawyer go on my second line. A platypus bladder and some purification tablets go on my first line(bad day indeed, if I am using this). The Katadyn, stove, and pot go in the third line gear. Tinder kit, wire saw, ferro rod and flint go on the first line, as well as a short piece of hacksaw blade(throws a ton of sparks). Carry matches in a good container in third line, and and a lighter in my second line. Lighter is has a piece of inner tube material around it, stuff burns hot in an emergency. Also keep a bag of vaseline-soaked cotton balls in the third line as firestarters for wet weather. Also carey a small fresnel lens, which starts a fire pretty well on sunny days.

    Cleaning water containers. Never put dirty water into anything but the dirty end of a filter, or at least a container that can be boiled, such as a stainless Nalgene or other SINGLE-WALL stainless bottle. Do not try to boil, heat or cook in, any double wall vacuum sealed bottle, unless you want to destroy it. Not sure if the plastic canteens will hold up to boiling, never tried. Bleach also kills microbes. But boiling is not dependent on a chemical product with a shelf life, and the only thing boiling may not work for is if you are getting your water from hot springs, which may contain thermophilic bacteria not found in lesser environments.

  20. Johnny Paratrooper


    Pocket water filter designed four outdoor enthusiasts and international travelers
    Filter’s silver-impregnated ceramic element is effective against bacteria and protozoa
    Filters all microorganisms larger than 0.2 microns to produce clear, drinkable water
    Round pump handle for easy pumping; outlet hose attaches to containers with clip

    This thing works great. Make sure you sleep with it in you sleeping bag. It will break if it freezes. Same as if its in you pack. You have to keep in in you inner pocket.

    • Old Gray Wolf

      Good comment on the freezing thing. Had a buddy lose one that way once, and still forgot to mention it. Glad you did.

      • Johnny Paratrooper

        They will freeze. Hell your canteens might freeze and pop.

        Those things are pretty tough though. I dont think I have seen that except on an old canteen.

        • SemperFi, 0321

          There was a WW2 canteen at the thrift store recently, walked away on it, you could see a burst seam from freezing.

    • Good point bringing up the silver aspect.
      I have an electronic machine which makes
      one gallon of colloidal silver at aprox .008 ppm
      in 2 hours. The longer I leave after the 2 hours
      the higher the ppm of pure suspended silver particles

  21. European American

    I always have at least two (2) 55 gallon food grade (rain) barrels filled, and rotating, on the property, a few drops of bleach in both, then filtered, when needed, with either the Sawyer or the Katadyn.

  22. Johnny Paratrooper

    All filtered water should be drawn from running water. Not stagnant pools of jetties. Those have very, very high contaminates.

    Also, during times of great duress, and in mountainous areas, there is a great possibility that dead animal is face down in the water.

    That will REALLY mess you up.

  23. Maybe not entirely on topic, but at one time I worked for an environmental engineering firm. We used these well bailers for sampling groundwater wells:


    The thinner ones will more easily slip around well wiring and piping within a well casing. Just pop off the well cap, drop in a bailer and pull it back up filled with water.

    I keep some around still. Super light, reusable, inexpensive, completely noise-free way to get water from a well you may happen to come across in your travels. Needs no electricity – just some string. Maybe not something you would carry on patrol (especially the larger ones), but we keep some in with our preparedness group’s supplies.

  24. I realize I’m not adding to the conversation but I’ve enjoyed following these posts. I’d love to see this series of postings summarized in one thread at some point. Not everything, just the highlights with some of the top contenders and maybe some of the more thought provoking points made.

  25. Anything wrong with PolarPure iodine ? I’ve heard both good and bad reports about it, but for a long term kit item, I hear mostly good. The bad mainly centers around the taste of water after treatment.

  26. Once again: Systems, not gear.

    If you have a stainless 1 qt. military canteen and a canteen cup, you can boil it* to purify it.


    Plastic, not so much.

    The issue ALICE canteen pouches also hold both,


    and have a pocket on the outside for water purification tabs, for when you can’t take the time or risk the fire. So, some of those too.


    I’m not a fan of the flimsy short-term filters, but a LifeStraw isn’t that big, and worth the space for up to 1000 gallons of use.


    So far, you’re at maybe $70@ for everything.
    You could stop here, and do all right.

    But water’s kind of important, and while I wouldn’t necessarily buy 15 of them, I’ve always got a Katadyn ceramic filter in my pack.
    $370, and worth every penny. 13,000 quarts is a nearly 9-year supply for 1 person.


    (And a spare filter element on the shelf. Another $135.)

    I’m also near the coast, so there’s also a Katadyn lifeboat desalinator hereabouts. That means on the beach, I’ll run out of drinking water when the ocean goes dry, or after several thousand gallons of filtration.
    Yes, it costs $1000. They’re also in every raft ditch kit in the .mil inventory, because they work. I’m worth it. Are you? And your family?


    Thinking of base camp?
    The biggest Berkey countertop unit you can justify, a full set of filters, and another set of spares. Around $400.


    BTW, their stainless items are the international shiznit; their plastic stuff is cheap rinky shit.

    And/or the Katadyn Expedition filter.
    About $1500, and for 15 guys, enough water everyone for 14 months, anywhere but the Sahara Desert.
    Each filter is good for 26,000 quarts.

    Anything beyond that gets into mega-equipment.

    BTW, studies show that a desert solar still will cost you more sweat to build than the amount of water it will yield.
    Unless you build it once, and stay put, and recycle urine. Then you’ll almost break even.
    If you’re moving, it’s a total waste of time and effort.

    But if you’re forted up, you should build metal/glass/steel permanent condensation stills, and put the sun to work for part of the year, depending on where you are. You can turn pond and puddle sludge into drinking water for about $50 in materials, at least six months a year, with a lifecycle as long as the sun holds out and your condensation glass doesn’t break.

    And remember, your kidneys start to fail after 3 days without water.
    Long before that, you’re mostly worthless.
    “Hydrate or die” isn’t just an ad slogan.

    *{Which gets into fire-starting gear, which should be another entire 15 Fighters post topic.}

    • Excellent as always. Fire added to list. Thanks.

    • A.B. Prosper

      Outstanding post.

      If you have access to a known source of clean water , the thru hiker trick of using off the shelf bottled water bottles in addition to the usual kit might be of merit.

      These bottles are light weight and easily disposed of when safe or just crushed up when no longer useful so they take up less space.

      They are only useful with good water and as a supplement though in times of trouble.

    • Can you do anything with a PolarPure to substitute for iodine tablets you’d want to take in case of radioactive fallout?

      • 1) “Fallout pills” are potassium iodine salts, (KI), used to block the absorption of radioactive iodine into the thyroid after a nuclear event, thus killing it, and/or giving you thyroid cancer.


        2) PolarPure is straight (99.5%) Iodine crystals, diluted via water to a useful concentration to kill pathogens in drinking water: (I).

        (What got PolarPure into trouble is that iodine can be used as part of a process to process homebrew methamphetamine, so in their ceaseless moron-directed efforts to fornicate up any actual war on narcotics, the EPA and State of CA (AKA Dumb & Dumber) made iodine a controlled substance. After several years, by selling direct, and limiting shipments – per agreement with the DEA – to one little bottle per person per day, it’s back on the market. You can buy all you want now, but if you order 365 bottles, it’ll take a year to get them all. If you aren’t allergic to iodine, you should buy a handsome amount, regardless of wait for shipping. One bottle of PolarPure replaces 40 bottles of 50-pill bottles of AquaPure or mil-spec iodine water purification tablets, for about 4 times the price of 1 bottle of the latter, and the shelf life of PolarPure is essentially indefinite.)

        One of these things is not like the other.

  27. Polar pure worked well on two 10 day treks into Boundary Waters. All water we used for drinking & coming treated with it after pre-filter to get out larger particles. 9 person crew for 10 days, good test imho. Does have a taste, you get used to it or use flavored drink powder.

  28. “Cooking” that is, not coming. Sheesh.

  29. In a pinch, I’ve heard LifeStraw works rather well.

  30. Just released: Casey Codding (a/k/a – Casey Michael Codding) Capt OSP shot and killed LaVoy Finicum

    Used by the U.N. to purify Turd World Grunt Water
    Available at Amazon, Walmart
    Evolve Bleach Tablets
    Long Shelf Life

  32. European American

    Like the “Boots” article/thread, another very informative thread, Thank you CA!

  33. Life straw is my woods friend. You should also invest in a bunch of NoSalt before the baloon goes up and learn how to make your own electrolytes like the ones in Brawndo.

    • Oh and really pay attention, cause if you fuck up the ratio on the K you won’t get a second chance. And fuck gatorwee and the Stupor bowel sportsballers. All of you.

      • One other point on K (potassium):

        Those big cramps in your thighs and other systems?

        Potassium will stop them.

        Too much, that heart muscle will stop as well.


        • With the exception of people taking potassium-conserving diuretics (e.g., spironolactone, triamterene, amiloride) or potassium-conserving anti-hypertensives (e.g., all the ACEI and ARB classes, the “-prils” and
          “-sartans”), it is very difficult to overdose ORAL potassium (besides, most people find oral potassium unpalatable).

          I.V. potassium is the big risk—too fast and/or too much is “¡Adios!”

    • The larger in diameter drinking straws can be packed with activated carbon
      and “corked” on both ends with cotton or similar.
      Need to research on adding Zeolite and see if it improves
      in mix with the activated carbon.
      Straws come in handy 🙂

  34. Since the middle of WW2 the US government has been dumping radioactive waste all over the eastern US (and parts of the west like Hanford Wash.). in landfills. Also the overburden from most Appalachian strip mines is poor quality oil shale that is loaded with toxic levels of Radium and Pitchblend (spell?)(Uranium oar). It is the primary reason that the Federal Government shut down the oil wells in Kentucky. The oil is radioactive! So is the soil and ground water around the old wells. THERE IS NO WAY TO FILTER RADIOACTIVE WASTE!! That is another internet myth. You ether avoid it or get nuked. Not all of Appalachia is contaminated. But enough is that Kentucky has banned drinking untested ground water over most of eastern Kentucky. This go’s right back to “KNOW YOUR AO” . Get a map and a calibrated surplus radiation detector and Map while you train. In a few months you can fix all the “hot spots” in your planed GWOA, or within X miles of your planned retreat. You might also invest in a heavy metal detection kit. That old strip mine waste, had all kinds of nasty toxins in it, and Appalachia is covered in old strip mines.

    • Johnny Paratrooper

      This is good information.

      The coal and petroleum in the US is some of the oldest on earth.

      Very, very toxic stuff.

      But we also have some of the cleanest stuff one earth.

      Which is funny. I guess a big old radioactive meteor hit back in the day.

    • Was rechecking the Zeolite mention from my post above yours Ray.
      Well, it so happens that Zeoiite has and is being used to absorb
      I knew for a fact that Zeolite is also used in oxygen machines to scrub ambient air and produce higher oxygen levels by absorbing in hydrogen etc
      and leave higher oxygen % for breathing too, but breathing is another topic.

    • European American

      Distill the Radiation out of the water?

      Someone seems to think it is possible. Is it?

      • It depends. If the radionuclide’s boiling point is the same or less than the boiling point of water, distillation will not be effective.

        Think about tritium. It forms tritiated water, so cannot be distilled or filtered from water. Tritiated water still leaks from Fukushima. Tritium is used in fission weapons.

        Tritium decays by beta emission, so is not so much a problem externally, but a significant problem when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed.

        Tritium night sights? Not a health problem… unless you break the bulb.

  35. John Stevens

    I have used the Sawyer filters and highly recommend them as long as you don’t let them freeze. They are super handy because you can attach them to almost any plastic bottle or insert them in line in a hydration bladder. The mini Can filter 100,000 gallons and the larger one can filter 1,000,000 gallons. They also filter down to the viral level. When used in conjunction with an activated charcoal filter you get great tasting water.

    They can also be adapted to run in a bucket system similar to the big Berkey. I have use the Sawyer to filter some pretty foul water and have never had an issue. In addition I keep tincture of iodine as a back up to my Sawyer. The last resort is my Kleen Kanteen so that I can boil water as a last resort. At the house I keep high test pool shock in a mason jar with the reusable plastic lid so that I do not have the rusting issue that others experience.

  36. meh. water is everywhere… when the Fusa runs dry, we’ll sell or trade a gallon or two…

  37. European American

    Distilled water is some of the purist out there. It is said if one drinks distilled water it can leach out minerals from the body. However, if one is eating plenty of wholesome organic foods, then it really isn’t an issue.

    Non electric is the way to go. a couple to consider…



  38. Ok, challenge.
    Having a prepared means to access purified water is great. But lets imagine you have to bug out or forced into retreat with none of this kit?
    a/ How would you go about purifying a water source.
    b/ Hold at least a quart of purified water from method (a).

    Lets hear some out of box thinking.

    • Condom for carriage and grass/sand/charcoal layer filter.

      • a) I’ll second filtering with charcoal. Easy enough to make charcoal and you can improvise some “container” to hold the charcoal and then filter the water through it. It’s definitely not 100% effective but close. I would definitely filter the water more than once until it comes through clean, but a little carbon won’t kill you.

        b) For storage of the filtered water you can use clay pots that you make at the new base camp near a river or other water source and you can use animal skins made into a “canteen” for movement/patrolling.

        Grey Ghost

    • European American

      Without going primitive, in terms of methods to purify water, just carry either a sawyer $20 filter in your car, in your bug out/home bag or a “Life straw” filter. I know the Sawyer works wonderfully having used it on numerous multiple overnight treks.
      I carry the whole Sawyer “system” in my bug-home-bag…don’t leave home without it, I always have it, take it with me, even if a friend picks me. I always have my bag within close proximity. If I can’t get to it then I’m already in, over my head. One has to be prepared 24/7, always thinking in those terms no matter what is going across the screen of perception. One doesn’t let one’s guard down while living in a war zone. And we are all smack-dab living in a war zone.
      I can’t image leaving home, whether it’s down the street or to the next state over, with the thought of going out without my bag. That would be crazy. A 9 point O, for 60seconds, could hit here in the Pacific NW, The event will unravel the minds of the majority. Just carry or have access to a small water filter at all times.

    • out of box thinking

      I’m sure some predatory government employee possesses something you can use, and you paid for it already. File for a tax refund. Enough of a government shutdown, and you can return to having electricity run hot and cold water to the sink. Camping is a vacation entertainment, not a lifestyle.

  39. I keep a platypus bladder with drinking tube in the top of my ruck. I keep a katyden hiker filter in the pack. It’s plumbed to plug straight into the bladder without having to take it out. It works on water bottles as well. I also keep a few coffee filters in the filter bag wrap it around the inlet hose end and they are good for helping to strain out mud and such if the water source is kinda dirty, helping the filter element last a bit longer.

    On my kit I keep two 1l water bottles. One bottle is a uninsulated metal one that mates up to a “bushpot” with top and a bail. Both can be used as is either straight in a fire or on top of a stove.

    The other bottle is a nalgine. In one bottle pouch I keep the bushpot & bits along with some debit tablets. The nalgine bottle has a small bottle of water purifying tabs taped to the cap. I also keep a small bag of instant hot liquids. In that pouch too.

  40. While I like the design, I broke a personal Katadyn years ago.

    Have seen and used lots of big Berkey filters abroad (there will be one at the bunker hide site, right?)

    The little frontier survival straw has a nifty feature that will allow you to thread the thing onto any disposable water bottle/1-2 liter plastic pop bottle which is ubiquitous across the third world and the first…

    Also a plug for Aquamira products. They are good Americans; if you have or lose a part, customer service is excellent.

  41. The metal katdyn ? With the ceramic filters are what serious folks use. Those plastic units shatter in the cold.

    Big berkeys multi, with the high end filters will serve you well.

    Knowing your water is gtg is worth the extra pack weight.


  42. Terrible terrible

    Salt chlorine generator


  43. https://oasispumps.com/pumps.html

    If you have a well, you can get well water with a hand pump. We have a shallow well with a jet pump in the basement and one of these plumbed in right next to it. When it’s below zero and the streams and ponds are frozen solid, we have a liquid source of hundreds of gallons of already filtered and purified water without even so much as going outside. 12 fl oz per stroke. More than enough for us and the like-minded neighbors all year round.

    Nevermind that the solar panels and inverter can run the well pump…

  44. Garry F. Owen, Trooper

    My .02 worth, adjusted for inflation: no matter what storage containers are used, I cannot recommend any more highly the Survivorstraw. Similar to the Lifestraw, this individual filter not only treats sketchy water, it also purifies it with its .02 micron capability. The unit removes bacteria and cysts, as other filters do, but goes beyond to remove viruses and heavy metals. The intake end is threaded to allow a standard 20 oz. plastic beverage bottle to be used to gather water and then filtered into a clean container. Platypus makes several collapsible canteens that have the same standard threads as the plastic bottles. You could fill one of these and drink directly from the filter, or transfer to a clean container. Speed of filtering depends on how hard you squeeze. Don’t leave home without it.